Saturday, May 23, 2020

Ptsd And Vietnam Traumatic Stress Disorder - 2427 Words

Richard Douglas Hum 310 tue-thurs PTSD and Vietnam Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is defined by the National Institute of Mental Health as a â€Å"disorder that develops in some people who have seen or lived through a shocking, scary, or dangerous events†. This being one of the titles strapped on to most returning veterans from war is an issue that is heavily debated and relevant to future war veterans. There is no known cure for this disorder and can be destructive to one who has it. This report will be going over 1) A brief history of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 2) Why does Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder pertain to Vietnam veterans specifically how the veterans helped PTSD be what it is today 3) Some evidence from other sources that†¦show more content†¦In World War II they changed to the title â€Å"Battle fatigue† and â€Å"Combat Stress Reaction† this is where the idea that war stressor actually causes a solider to have problem. Doctors were starting to take the symptoms a little more serious and were treating it with removal from combat for rest, of course eventually being sent back into combat later. With further growth in Psychiatric care and the American Psychiatric Association(APA) in the 1950’s and some later in the 1960’s, APA crated the DSM I/II (Diagnostic and Statistical Mental Disorders). With huge amounts of Vietnam Veterans interviews and further research in the 1980’s the psychological symptoms of PTSD were caused and created by the traumatic events of war time. There are still gray areas as to how to prevent this in war time and how to treat such a problem once one has it, but there is still ongoing research to this day. They are now up to the DSM 5 and are constantly researching these psychological problems. Such things like processing, classes, and psychological evaluations happen before release back to civilian life has been made for returning veterans in efforts to lessen the number of effected Veterans. Relevancy of PTSD to the Vietnam War Although the symptoms had not yet been titled Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Vietnam had a lot to do with the classification of the psychological trauma on the human brain. The returning veterans were a heavy part of the process in

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Myth of Courage Exposed in The Things They Carried Essay

Ah for a young man all looks fine and noble if he goes down in war, hacked to pieces under a slashing bronze blade he lies there dead. . .but whatever death lays bare all wounds are marks of glory. (Homer 22.83-87) As students we are brainwashed by ancient myths such as The Iliad, where war is extolled and the valorous warrior praised. Yet, modern novels such as Tim OBriens The Things They Carried (THINGS) challenge those very notions. Like The Iliad, THINGS is about war. It is about battles and soldiers, victory and survival, yet the message OBrien gives us in THINGS runs almost contradictory to the traditional war story. Whereas traditional stories of war take place on battlefields where soldier battles soldier and†¦show more content†¦What the reader experiences while reading the novel, is entirely different from what he expects from a typical war story. Absolutes must be absent from the text, if OBrien is to illustrate how any of our mythologies, including courage, frequently fail to meet up to actual experience. As many have noted, OBrien ingeniously facilitates a mood of incongruity, or disconnection, between fiction and fact in The Things They Carried through sheer structure. By blurring lines between fantasy and reality, THINGS truly becomes a contradiction of itself. As Catherine Calloway notes, one of the ways in which OBrien achieves this blurring of lines, is to model the narrator of THINGS after himself, a drafted Vietnam war veteran, a Harvard graduate, and a writer with the same name of Tim OBrien (para. 3). OBrien is aware that the practiced reader knows not to confuse the narrator with the author, and yet the reader is encouraged to do just that. The purpose, of course, is to keep the reader as unbalanced, as unsure, of what we are told to be truths, as is the Vietnam soldier. Another way in which OBrien blurs fiction and fact is through his narrators (heretofore referred to as Tim), constant and contradictory claims as to the veracity of his stories. One moment Tim swears that a story is true, such as in the chapter The Man I Killed, when he speaks so realistically and in such detail, about killing an enemy soldier (THINGS 141), butShow MoreRelatedGreek Gods and Goddesses2478 Words   |  10 Pagesonly to Zeus, in power and importance. Poseidon was the Ruler of the Sea and gave the first horse to man. His nickname, The Earth-Shaker, was given to him because of his ability to shake and shatter what he pleased with his trident that he always carried. (Hamilton 27-28) He was portrayed as a man with less serene features, a thick beard, and disorderly hair. (Guirand 151) br brHades was also the son of Cronus and Rhea. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Treasure Island Free Essays

J im Hawkins is a young boy who lives at his parents’ inn, the Admiral Benbow, near Bristol, England, in the eighteenth century. An old sea captain named Billy Bones dies in the inn after being presented with a black spot, or official pirate verdict of guilt or judgment. Jim is stirred to action by the spot and its mysterious, accurate portent of Billy’s death. We will write a custom essay sample on Treasure Island or any similar topic only for you Order Now Hastily, Jim and his mother unlock Billy’s sea chest, finding a logbook and map inside. Hearing steps outside, they leave with the documents before Billy’s pursuers ransack the inn. Jim realizes that the contents he has snatched from the sea chest must be valuable, so he takes one of the documents he has found to some local acquaintances, Dr. Livesey and Squire Trelawney. Excited, they recognize it as a map for a huge treasure that the infamous pirate Captain Flint has buried on a distant island. Trelawney immediately starts planning an expedition. Naive in his negotiations to outfit his ship, the Hispaniola, Trelawney is tricked into hiring one of Flint’s former mates, Long John Silver, and many of Flint’s crew. Only the captain, Smollett, is trustworthy. The ship sets sail for Treasure Island with nothing amiss, until Jim overhears Silver’s plans for mutiny. Jim tells the captain about Silver and the rest of the rebellious crew. Landing at the island, Captain Smollett devises a plan to get most of the mutineers off the ship, allowing them leisure time on shore. On a whim, Jim sneaks into the pirates’ boat and goes ashore with them. Frightened of the pirates, Jim runs off alone. From a hiding place, he witnesses Silver’s murder of a sailor who refuses to join the mutiny. Jim flees deeper into the heart of the island, where he encounters a half-crazed man named Ben Gunn. Ben had once served in Flint’s crew but was marooned on the island years earlier. Meanwhile, Smollett and his men have gone ashore and taken shelter in a stockade the pirates have built. Jim returns to the stockade, bringing Ben with him. Silver visits and attempts a negotiation with the captain, but the captain is wary and refuses to speak to him. The pirates attack the stockade the next day, and the captain is wounded. Eager to take action, Jim follows another whim and deserts his mates, sneaking off to hunt for Ben’s handmade boat hidden in the woods. After finding Ben’s boat, Jim sails out to the anchored ship with the intention of cutting it adrift, thereby depriving the pirates of a means of escape. He cuts the rope, but he realizes his small boat has drifted near the pirates’ camp and fears he will be discovered. By chance, the pirates do not spot Jim, and he floats around the island until he catches sight of the ship drifting wildly. Struggling aboard, he discovers that one of the watchmen, Israel Hands, has killed the other watchman in a drunken fit. Jim takes control of the ship, but Israel turns against him. Jim is wounded but kills Israel. Jim returns to the stockade but finds it occupied by the pirates. Silver takes Jim hostage, telling the boy that the captain has given the pirates the treasure map, provisions, and the use of the stockade in exchange for their lives. Jim realizes, however, that Silver is having trouble managing his men, who accuse him of treachery. Silver proposes to Jim that they help each other survive by pretending Jim is a hostage. However, the men present Silver with a black spot and inform him that he has been deposed as their commande In a desperate attempt to gain control of his crew, Silver shows them the treasure map to appease them. Silver leads Jim and the men to the treasure site, but they are shocked to find it already excavated and the treasure removed. The men are angered and near mutiny again. At that moment Dr. Livesey, Ben Gunn, and the others fire on the pirate band, which scatters throughout the island. Jim and Silver flee, and are guided by the others to Ben’s cave, where Ben has hidden the treasure, which he had discovered months before. After spending three days carrying the loot to the ship, the men prepare to set sail for home. There is a debate about the fate of the remaining mutineers. Despite the pirates’ submissive pleas, they are left marooned on the island. Silver is allowed to join the voyage, but he sneaks off the ship one night with a portion of the treasure and is never heard from again. The voyage home comes to a close. Eventually, Captain Smollet retires from the sea, and Ben becomes a lodge-keeper. Jim swears off treasure-hunting forever and suffers from nightmares about the sea and gold coins. XVIII . ?  «  »,    ,   Ã¢â‚¬â€ ?     . . ?  ,   ?  Ã‚   - ?   ,      ?      . ,  Ã‚   , ; , ?  , . ?   , ?   , ?  , .    ?   .    ?  ,    , ?     Ã¢â‚¬â€ ,   . , ,    ,   Ã¢â‚¬â€ . ?  . ?      . , ,      , ?  Ã‚  . , ?   , ?     , ?   ,      Ã‚   . ?      - . ?   , ,    , . ?   , ?   . ?   , , . ? , , ?   ( ) , , .   ,   .    ?   , ?  , ?   . ,    : , ?    «Ã‚ ».         Ã‚   , , .     «  » . ,       ?   .    ?   , , , . ?      ,   Ã‚   . ,  «Ã‚ » ?   . ?   - ?  ,    ,    , ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬â€ , ?   .    ?  , , ?     Ã‚   ,   .   , ?  Ã‚   . ?  ,    . . , ?   , ?   ?     .      , ?     .    ,    ?      ?  . ?   , , , , , , .   ,   Ã¢â‚¬â€ , . ?     ,      , . , , , ?   .    , ?   , ?  , . ? ?   , , ?   ?   ,    ?  ,    ?  , ?   , ?   . ?     , ?   . , ?  Ã‚  Ã‚ «  »,   , , ?,   ?  , ?   . , ,    ?   , ?   . ?   , ?     Ã‚ «Ã‚ ». ,    , ?      , ?   , ?   ?   , ?  .      , ?   ?   ?  , ,    , . ,    . , ?   , , ?,   , . , ?   , , ?        .   Ã‚  , , , , ?   , ?   ?   ?  , ?      , .    , ?   ?   ?  ,    ?  . , ?   ?   ,   , ?   ,    . ?    , ?   . , . How to cite Treasure Island, Essay examples Treasure Island Free Essays Journals Writing about your favorite book If you are a fan of adventure books, Treasure Island is what you are looking for. It is not because I’m a fan of the book, but is Treasure Island itself is one of greatest fictional adventures in the pirates’ world. Robert Louis Stevenson, who is the author of this book, tells the story under the narration of the young Jim Hawkins. We will write a custom essay sample on Treasure Island or any similar topic only for you Order Now Jim and his mother own an inn, living a normal life. But when the destiny comes and knocks the door, his life changed forever. A treasure map from an old pirates who stays in his inn somehow comes to Jim’s hand. Not long after that, Jim is forced into the adventure to the pirates’ world to find the treasure island. There are many unforgettable characters, such as young Jim Hawkins, kind-hearted Captain Smollett, brave doctor Livesey, and the one-legged cook Long John Silver, who is firstly appeared to be a funny and friendly person and the next a dangerous pirate leader! My favorite part of the book is when Jim has to say goodbye to his mother, gets extremely critical of his replacement at the inn, and then goes on to forget all of those things when he gets to Bristol and experiences things he’d never dreamed of. I love this section of the story because it’s one of the few periods in this novel that show the simplicity of innocence, and that’s what Jim really was: an innocent. This is again show how talented the author is. He describe each of his characters distinctively and freely. Each character in this adventure has free will and do anything they want. There are no restraints such as good man always do good things in this book. The one-legged cook plays the two-face games easily and smoothly as if it is his nature. This man is opposite is the young Jim Hawkins. While Jim shows his bravery toward hardships and treachery during his adventure, Long John Silver always lean to the side which gives him the most benefits. That is why Jim has many friends around him while John has no one. It seems that Jim push away the obstacle and treachery while John pull it toward him. It is interesting that despite of all those settings, Long John is still a Jim’s so-called friend, who help each other in the adventure. This book was a part of my childhood, but of course, in Vietnamese language translated. It was lucky that the book is interesting in any languages translated. Let us make a special effort to stop communicating with each other, so that we can have conversation† As I know, this is a famous quote of writer Mark Twain. The meaning of this quote is that people spend too much time talking but they don’t listen. Communication and conversation seem to have many similarities. However, in my opinions, a conversation is much more comple x and interactive than simple communication. While communicate, you often focus on speaking. It means you are basically conveying your own ideas to others, but during a conversation, we don’t only speak. We also listen to other people’s ideas. In addition, I believe that our speaking are more likely responses to others’ opinions or arguments. In a conversation, people often interact with rather than dominate others with their own ideas. They together build up and support the general topics. While most people think it is easy to make a conversation, they are actually wrong. Conversation is listening as much as talking. The ability to listen is as important as the ability to convey ideas. That is the meaning that the quote wants to convey. Many people say that â€Å"Pumped up kicks† is a better song about abusive school kids than â€Å"Jeremy. However, most of them do not know what makes those two songs so popular and why their lyrics, melodies and public receptions, not other songs’, are compared with each other. By comparing those two songs in those characteristics, we can reveal the uniqueness of each song and know more about what â€Å"Jeremy† and â€Å"Pumped up kicks† want to convey. Both of these songs are about kids who lack of care from family and society. Pearl Jam started writing this song when their leader Eddie Vedder read about a high school student suicide in front of his classmates and decide that they have to do something about it. It is also about the kid who engaged in a gun shooting that Vedder knows back in his high school time. As we go further in lyric of â€Å"Jeremy,† we can see the kid named Jeremy who is ignored by his parents and his friends. His classmates treat him as wicked, having problem kid. Jeremy doesn’t know what to do and whom he should share his feelings with, so he represses it until he can’t bear it anymore and ends up shooting himself in front of the class. â€Å"Pumped up kicks† is more likely a warning about gun violence among youth. The song is about a kid playing cowboys with a â€Å"six shooter gun. As the kid named Jeremy in Pearl Jam’s song, this kid thinks he can rule everything because he has a gun. The image of a â€Å"cowboy† is similar to â€Å"King Jeremy† because they both have a gun and they are lonely. In Pump He is bullied and his dad beats him when he is drunk. He has a gun and he is going to shoot the kids with those f ancy shoes to get pay back on his father and the kids who have bullied him. In the chorus, Mark Foster writes â€Å"better run, better run, faster. † That makes us feel like we are watching a chasing game where everything is speedy and furious. Despite having different lyrics, both of these two songs talk about regrettable consequences which result from the ignorance from the family that lead the kid to unsteady, unpredictable behaviors. Critical reaction also triggers a controversial topic between the two songs. As we know, both â€Å"Jeremy† and â€Å"Pumped up kicks† is talking about the abused school  kids. Both of  the  two songs got huge attentions from the public when they are released. However, â€Å"Jeremy†Ã‚  had to face much more negative reception from public. In this video, we are telling about the life of a kid named Jeremy. Words such as â€Å"bored,† â€Å"problem,† â€Å"harmless† or â€Å"wicked† appear frequently. His parents, his classmates seem to be motionless whenever he tries to express himself. Especially the  scene  Jeremy putting the gun in his mouth has made a big impact on people who watch this video. With this video, Pearl Jam wants to show us the painful reality of being ignored and being unable to share the feelings with others. They want people to take an action so that there won’t be any kids have to face the same problems as Jeremy. â€Å"Pumped up kicks† did not have such a  strong negative effect on  listeners like â€Å"Jeremy.   The music video â€Å"Pumped up kicks† shows how the Young enjoy their life. They find the place for themselves, where they have friends and not to be ignored. Although the lyric is about an isolated psychotic kid, the video expresses that idea in a more comfortable way than the video â€Å"Jere my. † In the video, there is not any kid carrying gun around and chasing other kids with â€Å"pumped up kicks. † That is why people feel this song more acceptable. However, the statement was that people should not sing and dance the song  in funny mood because this song did not bring a positive message. People seem to care more about the funny tunes than the real message that the song conveys: violence and ignorance, abusive kids. Drinking age often trigger controversial debates in America about which age is suitable for minors to drink legally. Some people argue that age limit should be lowered to 18. They support their opinions by claiming that the 21 age limit fails to decline the number of kids using alcohol, and lowering drinking age to 18 will be more suitable comparing to voting, having driver license or signing up for U. S. Army. Lowering drinking age to 18 seems to be more fair to minors, but the changes it propose would in fact damage American youth. Some people believe that setting the drinking age to 21 is a failure because 21 age limit hasn’t stop minors from drinking. They claim that kids often drink before they are 21. They still drink whether ignoring the age limit. That is why they believe the 21 age limit should be changed into lower age limit, such as 18. However, it is not the age limit that makes minors decide to drink or not. When the 21 age limit law takes place, it stops minors from buying alcohol from any bars, stores or restaurants. Current drinking restrains many college students from buying alcohol easily and thus slowing down case of drinking among youth. Some argue that 18 age limit is more suitable than 21 age limit. When kids are 18 years old, they become adults and they have the citizenship. They have the rights and responsibilities for what their behaviors. They can vote, have driver license, sign up for U. S. Army and of course drink if they want. In my opinions, lowering drinking age to 18 may result in potential effects that we don’t even know. Drinking is different from having a driver license or voting. If we lower the drinking age, it will create a stimulation among young. They will think that drinking is a good behavior and start drinking more and more alcohol. They spend more time to get drank rather than studying. Also, it drinking accompany with driving, minors can cause accidents and face legal troubles for months or years. It may ruined up American youth. Through the current drinking age limit doesn’t have clearly effect in lowering the number of minors using alcohol, it still prevents majority of college students from buying alcohol and thus reduces the amount of drinking ases and drunk driving among minors. Also, 18 drinking age limit has more disadvantages than advantages that makes it not feasible to replace current drinking age limit. Special situations define person. In our life, we experience many situations that show us and others who we are. It happened to me when I was in high school. I had a close friend and also my classmate in high school. We are the two b est student in math. I couldn’t control my jealousy and thus lost one of my best friend. We still met after that but our friendship was not the same as before I remember the sentence that my old grandpa used to say when I was small: â€Å"Everyone is hungry for something: happiness, love, desire†¦. â€Å"With me is being number one. Sometimes the desire of being number one dominates me and leads to negativity. However, I don’t think jealousy is a bad characteristic. It is a part of human nature. Attempting to remove jealousy is attempting to remove the incentive for you to develop. It is better if you learn to control jealousy. You will have incentive to be better off if want to be number one. How to cite Treasure Island, Papers

Treasure Island Free Essays

J im Hawkins is a young boy who lives at his parents’ inn, the Admiral Benbow, near Bristol, England, in the eighteenth century. An old sea captain named Billy Bones dies in the inn after being presented with a black spot, or official pirate verdict of guilt or judgment. Jim is stirred to action by the spot and its mysterious, accurate portent of Billy’s death. We will write a custom essay sample on Treasure Island or any similar topic only for you Order Now Hastily, Jim and his mother unlock Billy’s sea chest, finding a logbook and map inside. Hearing steps outside, they leave with the documents before Billy’s pursuers ransack the inn. Jim realizes that the contents he has snatched from the sea chest must be valuable, so he takes one of the documents he has found to some local acquaintances, Dr. Livesey and Squire Trelawney. Excited, they recognize it as a map for a huge treasure that the infamous pirate Captain Flint has buried on a distant island. Trelawney immediately starts planning an expedition. Naive in his negotiations to outfit his ship, the Hispaniola, Trelawney is tricked into hiring one of Flint’s former mates, Long John Silver, and many of Flint’s crew. Only the captain, Smollett, is trustworthy. The ship sets sail for Treasure Island with nothing amiss, until Jim overhears Silver’s plans for mutiny. Jim tells the captain about Silver and the rest of the rebellious crew. Landing at the island, Captain Smollett devises a plan to get most of the mutineers off the ship, allowing them leisure time on shore. On a whim, Jim sneaks into the pirates’ boat and goes ashore with them. Frightened of the pirates, Jim runs off alone. From a hiding place, he witnesses Silver’s murder of a sailor who refuses to join the mutiny. Jim flees deeper into the heart of the island, where he encounters a half-crazed man named Ben Gunn. Ben had once served in Flint’s crew but was marooned on the island years earlier. Meanwhile, Smollett and his men have gone ashore and taken shelter in a stockade the pirates have built. Jim returns to the stockade, bringing Ben with him. Silver visits and attempts a negotiation with the captain, but the captain is wary and refuses to speak to him. The pirates attack the stockade the next day, and the captain is wounded. Eager to take action, Jim follows another whim and deserts his mates, sneaking off to hunt for Ben’s handmade boat hidden in the woods. After finding Ben’s boat, Jim sails out to the anchored ship with the intention of cutting it adrift, thereby depriving the pirates of a means of escape. He cuts the rope, but he realizes his small boat has drifted near the pirates’ camp and fears he will be discovered. By chance, the pirates do not spot Jim, and he floats around the island until he catches sight of the ship drifting wildly. Struggling aboard, he discovers that one of the watchmen, Israel Hands, has killed the other watchman in a drunken fit. Jim takes control of the ship, but Israel turns against him. Jim is wounded but kills Israel. Jim returns to the stockade but finds it occupied by the pirates. Silver takes Jim hostage, telling the boy that the captain has given the pirates the treasure map, provisions, and the use of the stockade in exchange for their lives. Jim realizes, however, that Silver is having trouble managing his men, who accuse him of treachery. Silver proposes to Jim that they help each other survive by pretending Jim is a hostage. However, the men present Silver with a black spot and inform him that he has been deposed as their commande In a desperate attempt to gain control of his crew, Silver shows them the treasure map to appease them. Silver leads Jim and the men to the treasure site, but they are shocked to find it already excavated and the treasure removed. The men are angered and near mutiny again. At that moment Dr. Livesey, Ben Gunn, and the others fire on the pirate band, which scatters throughout the island. Jim and Silver flee, and are guided by the others to Ben’s cave, where Ben has hidden the treasure, which he had discovered months before. After spending three days carrying the loot to the ship, the men prepare to set sail for home. There is a debate about the fate of the remaining mutineers. Despite the pirates’ submissive pleas, they are left marooned on the island. Silver is allowed to join the voyage, but he sneaks off the ship one night with a portion of the treasure and is never heard from again. The voyage home comes to a close. Eventually, Captain Smollet retires from the sea, and Ben becomes a lodge-keeper. Jim swears off treasure-hunting forever and suffers from nightmares about the sea and gold coins. XVIII . ?  «  »,    ,   Ã¢â‚¬â€ ?     . . ?  ,   ?  Ã‚   - ?   ,      ?      . ,  Ã‚   , ; , ?  , . ?   , ?   , ?  , .    ?   .    ?  ,    , ?     Ã¢â‚¬â€ ,   . , ,    ,   Ã¢â‚¬â€ . ?  . ?      . , ,      , ?  Ã‚  . , ?   , ?     , ?   ,      Ã‚   . ?      - . ?   , ,    , . ?   , ?   . ?   , , . ? , , ?   ( ) , , .   ,   .    ?   , ?  , ?   . ,    : , ?    «Ã‚ ».         Ã‚   , , .     «  » . ,       ?   .    ?   , , , . ?      ,   Ã‚   . ,  «Ã‚ » ?   . ?   - ?  ,    ,    , ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬â€ , ?   .    ?  , , ?     Ã‚   ,   .   , ?  Ã‚   . ?  ,    . . , ?   , ?   ?     .      , ?     .    ,    ?      ?  . ?   , , , , , , .   ,   Ã¢â‚¬â€ , . ?     ,      , . , , , ?   .    , ?   , ?  , . ? ?   , , ?   ?   ,    ?  ,    ?  , ?   , ?   . ?     , ?   . , ?  Ã‚  Ã‚ «  »,   , , ?,   ?  , ?   . , ,    ?   , ?   . ?   , ?     Ã‚ «Ã‚ ». ,    , ?      , ?   , ?   ?   , ?  .      , ?   ?   ?  , ,    , . ,    . , ?   , , ?,   , . , ?   , , ?        .   Ã‚  , , , , ?   , ?   ?   ?  , ?      , .    , ?   ?   ?  ,    ?  . , ?   ?   ,   , ?   ,    . ?    , ?   . , . How to cite Treasure Island, Essay examples Treasure Island Free Essays Journals Writing about your favorite book If you are a fan of adventure books, Treasure Island is what you are looking for. It is not because I’m a fan of the book, but is Treasure Island itself is one of greatest fictional adventures in the pirates’ world. Robert Louis Stevenson, who is the author of this book, tells the story under the narration of the young Jim Hawkins. We will write a custom essay sample on Treasure Island or any similar topic only for you Order Now Jim and his mother own an inn, living a normal life. But when the destiny comes and knocks the door, his life changed forever. A treasure map from an old pirates who stays in his inn somehow comes to Jim’s hand. Not long after that, Jim is forced into the adventure to the pirates’ world to find the treasure island. There are many unforgettable characters, such as young Jim Hawkins, kind-hearted Captain Smollett, brave doctor Livesey, and the one-legged cook Long John Silver, who is firstly appeared to be a funny and friendly person and the next a dangerous pirate leader! My favorite part of the book is when Jim has to say goodbye to his mother, gets extremely critical of his replacement at the inn, and then goes on to forget all of those things when he gets to Bristol and experiences things he’d never dreamed of. I love this section of the story because it’s one of the few periods in this novel that show the simplicity of innocence, and that’s what Jim really was: an innocent. This is again show how talented the author is. He describe each of his characters distinctively and freely. Each character in this adventure has free will and do anything they want. There are no restraints such as good man always do good things in this book. The one-legged cook plays the two-face games easily and smoothly as if it is his nature. This man is opposite is the young Jim Hawkins. While Jim shows his bravery toward hardships and treachery during his adventure, Long John Silver always lean to the side which gives him the most benefits. That is why Jim has many friends around him while John has no one. It seems that Jim push away the obstacle and treachery while John pull it toward him. It is interesting that despite of all those settings, Long John is still a Jim’s so-called friend, who help each other in the adventure. This book was a part of my childhood, but of course, in Vietnamese language translated. It was lucky that the book is interesting in any languages translated. Let us make a special effort to stop communicating with each other, so that we can have conversation† As I know, this is a famous quote of writer Mark Twain. The meaning of this quote is that people spend too much time talking but they don’t listen. Communication and conversation seem to have many similarities. However, in my opinions, a conversation is much more comple x and interactive than simple communication. While communicate, you often focus on speaking. It means you are basically conveying your own ideas to others, but during a conversation, we don’t only speak. We also listen to other people’s ideas. In addition, I believe that our speaking are more likely responses to others’ opinions or arguments. In a conversation, people often interact with rather than dominate others with their own ideas. They together build up and support the general topics. While most people think it is easy to make a conversation, they are actually wrong. Conversation is listening as much as talking. The ability to listen is as important as the ability to convey ideas. That is the meaning that the quote wants to convey. Many people say that â€Å"Pumped up kicks† is a better song about abusive school kids than â€Å"Jeremy. However, most of them do not know what makes those two songs so popular and why their lyrics, melodies and public receptions, not other songs’, are compared with each other. By comparing those two songs in those characteristics, we can reveal the uniqueness of each song and know more about what â€Å"Jeremy† and â€Å"Pumped up kicks† want to convey. Both of these songs are about kids who lack of care from family and society. Pearl Jam started writing this song when their leader Eddie Vedder read about a high school student suicide in front of his classmates and decide that they have to do something about it. It is also about the kid who engaged in a gun shooting that Vedder knows back in his high school time. As we go further in lyric of â€Å"Jeremy,† we can see the kid named Jeremy who is ignored by his parents and his friends. His classmates treat him as wicked, having problem kid. Jeremy doesn’t know what to do and whom he should share his feelings with, so he represses it until he can’t bear it anymore and ends up shooting himself in front of the class. â€Å"Pumped up kicks† is more likely a warning about gun violence among youth. The song is about a kid playing cowboys with a â€Å"six shooter gun. As the kid named Jeremy in Pearl Jam’s song, this kid thinks he can rule everything because he has a gun. The image of a â€Å"cowboy† is similar to â€Å"King Jeremy† because they both have a gun and they are lonely. In Pump He is bullied and his dad beats him when he is drunk. He has a gun and he is going to shoot the kids with those f ancy shoes to get pay back on his father and the kids who have bullied him. In the chorus, Mark Foster writes â€Å"better run, better run, faster. † That makes us feel like we are watching a chasing game where everything is speedy and furious. Despite having different lyrics, both of these two songs talk about regrettable consequences which result from the ignorance from the family that lead the kid to unsteady, unpredictable behaviors. Critical reaction also triggers a controversial topic between the two songs. As we know, both â€Å"Jeremy† and â€Å"Pumped up kicks† is talking about the abused school  kids. Both of  the  two songs got huge attentions from the public when they are released. However, â€Å"Jeremy†Ã‚  had to face much more negative reception from public. In this video, we are telling about the life of a kid named Jeremy. Words such as â€Å"bored,† â€Å"problem,† â€Å"harmless† or â€Å"wicked† appear frequently. His parents, his classmates seem to be motionless whenever he tries to express himself. Especially the  scene  Jeremy putting the gun in his mouth has made a big impact on people who watch this video. With this video, Pearl Jam wants to show us the painful reality of being ignored and being unable to share the feelings with others. They want people to take an action so that there won’t be any kids have to face the same problems as Jeremy. â€Å"Pumped up kicks† did not have such a  strong negative effect on  listeners like â€Å"Jeremy.   The music video â€Å"Pumped up kicks† shows how the Young enjoy their life. They find the place for themselves, where they have friends and not to be ignored. Although the lyric is about an isolated psychotic kid, the video expresses that idea in a more comfortable way than the video â€Å"Jere my. † In the video, there is not any kid carrying gun around and chasing other kids with â€Å"pumped up kicks. † That is why people feel this song more acceptable. However, the statement was that people should not sing and dance the song  in funny mood because this song did not bring a positive message. People seem to care more about the funny tunes than the real message that the song conveys: violence and ignorance, abusive kids. Drinking age often trigger controversial debates in America about which age is suitable for minors to drink legally. Some people argue that age limit should be lowered to 18. They support their opinions by claiming that the 21 age limit fails to decline the number of kids using alcohol, and lowering drinking age to 18 will be more suitable comparing to voting, having driver license or signing up for U. S. Army. Lowering drinking age to 18 seems to be more fair to minors, but the changes it propose would in fact damage American youth. Some people believe that setting the drinking age to 21 is a failure because 21 age limit hasn’t stop minors from drinking. They claim that kids often drink before they are 21. They still drink whether ignoring the age limit. That is why they believe the 21 age limit should be changed into lower age limit, such as 18. However, it is not the age limit that makes minors decide to drink or not. When the 21 age limit law takes place, it stops minors from buying alcohol from any bars, stores or restaurants. Current drinking restrains many college students from buying alcohol easily and thus slowing down case of drinking among youth. Some argue that 18 age limit is more suitable than 21 age limit. When kids are 18 years old, they become adults and they have the citizenship. They have the rights and responsibilities for what their behaviors. They can vote, have driver license, sign up for U. S. Army and of course drink if they want. In my opinions, lowering drinking age to 18 may result in potential effects that we don’t even know. Drinking is different from having a driver license or voting. If we lower the drinking age, it will create a stimulation among young. They will think that drinking is a good behavior and start drinking more and more alcohol. They spend more time to get drank rather than studying. Also, it drinking accompany with driving, minors can cause accidents and face legal troubles for months or years. It may ruined up American youth. Through the current drinking age limit doesn’t have clearly effect in lowering the number of minors using alcohol, it still prevents majority of college students from buying alcohol and thus reduces the amount of drinking ases and drunk driving among minors. Also, 18 drinking age limit has more disadvantages than advantages that makes it not feasible to replace current drinking age limit. Special situations define person. In our life, we experience many situations that show us and others who we are. It happened to me when I was in high school. I had a close friend and also my classmate in high school. We are the two b est student in math. I couldn’t control my jealousy and thus lost one of my best friend. We still met after that but our friendship was not the same as before I remember the sentence that my old grandpa used to say when I was small: â€Å"Everyone is hungry for something: happiness, love, desire†¦. â€Å"With me is being number one. Sometimes the desire of being number one dominates me and leads to negativity. However, I don’t think jealousy is a bad characteristic. It is a part of human nature. Attempting to remove jealousy is attempting to remove the incentive for you to develop. It is better if you learn to control jealousy. You will have incentive to be better off if want to be number one. How to cite Treasure Island, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Goran Kapicic at Actavis China free essay sample

Question 1 : Identify the factors that contributed to Kapicic’s successful turn-around of the company It can probably be seen that there are many factors that contributed to the successful turnover of Kapicic. However, from my point of view, there are three main factors that brought about the success of Kapicic which are his education background, understanding of Chinese culture and the way he influenced his employees. Firstly, Kapicic was privileged to be born in an well – educated family. His characteristics were mostly influenced by his father’s philosophy which made him to work first, if he wants to enjoy a wealthy life afterwards and his father had always been strict to him. Such rigid disciplines had built up important characteristics and working ethic for his future career. Furthermore, after graduated from the University of Zagreb, Kapicic had started working as marketing and sales manager before he was moved to Beijing. It might be true to say that he had a careful preparation for his life long career in China. We will write a custom essay sample on Goran Kapicic at Actavis China or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Secondly, living in China for more than 19 years had built Kapicic a substantial knowledge of the Chinese market , culture and people. In an interview, Kapicic once stated :â€Å"I strongly believe that leaders need to know their business inside out. They need to understand their people and operations.† (Pg 4, Goran Kapicic at Actavis China). Additionally, Kapicic also understood the concept of face which is very important for doing business in China. For example, he gave Li the largest office of the company even bigger than his own office and he never treated his employees at a lower level. He called them his partner, instead. Finally , the most crucial factor is the way that he influenced people. Actavis was initially a lost-making firm with a lot of negativity. When taking over Actavis, Kapicic had brought a brand new refreshing leadership style. It is understandable that Kapicic spent most of his effort on improving staff quality because he understood clearly that people are the fundamental unit of an organization. One of his successful strategies is to never treat his subordinate as second-in-command and he left the autonomy to his employees, which means they had their own decision and solution to the issue. However, he always offered a listening ear and useful advises to anyone who was in need. Delegating the right things to the right people as well as thoroughly praising them also had a remarkable result in influencing people, too. Song  Chenya – his sales manager were strongly motivated by Kapicic. He felt trustworthy and more responsible working with Kapicic. However, painful decisions are unavoidable in doing business and he had made some difficult decision to fire some employees who stood in the way of this company moving ahead. Facing the loss of the whole sales team due to conflict with the sales manager, Kapicic didn’t compromise and make the uncompromising decision. As a result, the sales departure then could recruit an excellent salesperson from other company, the tough decision of Kapicic had finally paid off. Question 2 : Critically discuss Kapicic’s leadership style. According to Don and John (2011), transformational leadership involves anticipating future trends, inspiring followers to understand and embrace a new vision of possibilities , developing others to be leaders or better leaders and building the organization or group into a community of challenged and rewarded learners. In brief, a transformational leader can be described as visionary, inspiring, daring and ethical. Considering thoroughly Kapicic’s personalities and characteristics, we can conclude that Kapicic obtains the transformational leadership style. His leadership style was shown clearly through the three crucial priorities that he embraced. First of all , Kapicic believes that he had the ultimate responsible for providing strategies to achieve the European standards as well as to make profit for the firm. He had carried out some main changes to in the firm by changing its working culture and ethics, replacing key personnel such as Song and Li. In his belief, people are the determinant of the success of a firm, therefore, he put most of his efforts in developing his staffs and employees Second of all, Kapicic is quite a challenge lover. He has never been afraid to take on difficult tasks. For him, rescuing a failing company makes him excited and successfully achieving something that is described as â€Å"mission impossible† is an ultimate challenge to him . When he first came to China in 2005, Actavis was well-known for its negativity and bad image in many business forums. However, after 6 years with attempts to recover the company, it has changed from a loss-making company to a profitable one. Furthermore, the responsibility and enthusiasm of workers have also been improved. Previously, when there came troubles, there were only finger-pointing blaming at each other. Now, everyone takes part for the mistake they made and start working altogether to solve the problem. Third of all, Kapicic has been ultimately inspirational to his employees. Kapicic believed that inspiration and motivation doesn’t come only from speeches and talks. Leaders need to understand their people and operations, talk to their people, listen to them and also share information with them. Not only Kapicic has successfully motivated his employees, he also developed other people to become leader, too. Let’s take Song Chenya – Manager of Sales Department as an obvious example, Kapicic trusted Song’s strategies and talents and gave Song opportunity to take control over his work which made Song feel very content. Within 16 months working at Actavis with the eager of learning and hard-working, Song became the manager of both sales department, leading the team of 90 people. It’s quite true to say that under Kapicic’s leadership style, Song has strongly developed his characteristics to be a leader, too. Furthermore, Kapicic believed that developing more leaders for the company is his mission, too , since the company cannot rely on Li and him solely. However, there are some drawbacks in Kapicic’s leadership style. For instance, leaving the autonomy to the employees without supervising closely might lead to the result that the vision of the leader and the understanding of his employee are wrongly aligned. Furthermore, lazy and unmotivated staffs will easily exploit the given empowerment, becoming lazy and not focusing on the job. Nevertheless, this could be overcome by a close supervision to each assigned task and a well – established compensation system. Question 3. Kapicic obviously places much emphasis on staff development. How should he manage this effort when the company operates in a highly competitive environment with low margins? It is quite true to say that Kapicic placed most of his effort in developing employees since he strongly believed that people are the determinant of an organization and it requires a high-quality developmental program for a good outcome. However, Actavis has just moved from making loss to earning its very first profit and generic drug industry is a highly competitive market with thin margins. Therefore, to take on the decision whether to invest strongly in developing staffs and employees, there are few things that need  to be thoroughly considered. First of all, was it the right time for the investment in developing employees. If so, how should employees be classified and ranked for the development process. Second of all, what kind of developmental programs should be selected, or should Actavis employees be developed through on-the-job experience ? Furthermore, who shoul d be in charge as company’s training providers ? Firstly, I strongly believe that it is the exact time to invest on developing staffs. Employees need not only to be enhanced in specialized skills but also intrapersonal ones, how to interact with or to motivate other people in order to work smoothly with each other for a better outcome. Additionally, choosing the right employees for the development process is important, too. It will help to save not only the explicit cost ( money spent on establishing the course ) but also the implicit cost (time that employees spent on studying instead of manufacturing). For example, employees from departments such as manufacturing, RD should be classified as theoretical-oriented. On the other hand, those from sales , marketing, HR departments would need intrapersonal skills more. Thus, classifying employees plays a very important role in saving cost for the company. Additionally, ranking employees is important, too. There are many ways that a manager can rank his/her employees, however, I believe that employees should be ranked base on their performance, and for each level of performance there will be a different developmental program. People whose performance are the best should deserve a high-level training program , and those who have the lowest outcome should be fired. Secondly, It is my belief that Actavis China should chose an on-the-job training program for several reasons. First of all, it does not require the development of potentially expensive training facilities . Company does not have to pay a training company/college. Furthermore, it is the senior highly skilled and experience staffs who will teach the new staff the exact skills they need for a particular job. Second of all, since on-the-job training is performed right at the work area, training tends to be focused on practical learning. Furthermore, restructuring the compensation and benefit system is also a solution that a manger could come up with. A well designed system will not only save money for the company but also increase the job satisfaction for  the employees. Remember that benefits that the employees receive extra are not necessarily money. For example, health and life insurance could be offered for workers to relieve them from certain fears ( injury, death ). We all have different kinds of needs. Some of us want money so they work for the company which gives them higher pay. Some value achievement more than money, they would associate themselves with firms which offer greater chances of promotion, learning and development. A compensation plan that hits workers’ needs is more likely to motivate them to act in the desired way. Question 4: How will news of the acquisition by Watson affect the employees of Actavis China? Is there anything Kapicic can do in advance so his people will be better prepared? On the 25th of April 2012, the event that Watson had acquired Actavis Group for approximately EUR4.25 billion to become the third largest worldwide generics company was publicly announced. This event obviously would cause some dramatic changes in the structure of Actavis company as well as negative effects on the employees morale. First of all, this event would initially result in a stressful and nervous workplace. Changing has never been easy to both employees and managers, especially when they cannot involve in making decision that has great impacts on their job – the fear of being under control of somebody else who doesn’t have the same experience and expertise. Consequently, this would affect the performance of the company negatively. Second of all is the fear of losing job. Hardly ever do two organizations have the same culture and characteristics, therefore when they come together as one, conflicts are unavoidable. According to Linda Pophal – a communication consultant with Strategic Communications, LLC, â€Å"as these groups get to know each other there will inevitably be conflict and perceived or real losses on both sides†. The loss could be their jobs, their opportunities or even the formal power that they previously had. This fear thus has negative effects on the productivity as well as the spirit of employees, some might even quit the job to look for somewhere else better. Third of all, competition and attempt to keep the jobs or to protect the position in the company will result in hatred and conflict between the old employees and the new comers in the company. Such competitiveness will obviously result in lower performance , cold tension and stress at workplace or sometimes even violence. Acquisition and merger happens frequently in business nowadays, however changing and adapting to new things has hardly ever been easy. Some may refuse to change, some may even quit the job for another opportunity. During the acquisitions and mergers, I strongly believe that the manager plays a crucial role in helping his employees to overcome these difficulties. The below are several recommended strategies that a Kapicic could do to help his employees. Firstly, being empathetic and supportive is very important. Understanding how difficult it is for the employee to change is necessary. Kapicic should put himself in his employees’ shoes to identify those who are in trouble of the changes and help them to overcome it. When employees can feel the empathy and the concerning attitudes of the manager, they will willingly start to provide information. Such openness also help to build up collaborative problems solving, which may overcome barriers to change. Secondly, providing a clearly upcoming plan for the acquisition is also a very effective strategy. It might be better to have your employees carefully prepared and know certainly what they need to do. Finally, staff communication is crucial. People are more likely to resist change when there are uncertain and vague information. Communicating effectively can reduce gossip, rumors and fears among the employees. The less information management shares with employees, the more employees will engage in speculation about the upcoming transaction. Minimal communication from management leads to drops in employee morale, productivity and job satisfaction. Effective company management can hold meetings and provide frequent communications with employees to explain the acquisition reasons and provide an integration plan and timeline so employees feel they are part of the process.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Social Construction of Gender

Introduction Gender as a topic has become very popular over the recent past. The global society has witnessed many changes in social construction of gender. According to World Health Organization, gender is a socially constructed trait, conduct, position, and action that a given society considers suitable for men and women. Lockheed (45) defines gender as a given range of characteristics that distinguishes a male from a female.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social Construction of Gender specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gender refers to those attributes that would make an individual be identified as either male or female. As can be seen from the above definitions, gender is more of a social than a physical attribute. We look at gender from a societal point of view. Lepowsky (90) defines social construction as an institutionalized characteristic that is largely acceptable in a given society because of the social system. Social construction, in a narrower term, refers to the general behavioral patterns of a certain society shaped by beliefs and values. A socially constructed characteristic therefore varies from one organization to another. Different societies have different beliefs and cultural practices that help define them. Therefore, a social construction of one society would be different from another society. To social constructionists, social construct is a notion or an idea that is considered obvious and natural to a certain group of individuals in a given society, which may be true or not. This means that it holds just to the specific society. In this regard therefore, gender and associated beliefs would vary from one community to another depending on perceptions. On the other hand, essentialists hold there is a set of characteristics that are universal in a certain entity. This means that a given entity can receive a single definition, regardless of the societal set up. In this rega rd, gender is a universal entity, irrespective of the society and the cultural beliefs associated with it. This perspective dilutes the notion that gender is a social construction. This is because it gives it a universal definition, where there is a remarkable difference in the social construct of different societies in the world. This is due to differences in religion, cultural beliefs and civilization. To validate this discussion, the essay is based on social constructionist thinking as opposed to essentialism. Social Construction of Gender Gender is socially constructed. As Lepowsky (31) notes, there is a remarkable difference in the way different societies view the two genders that is, male and female. This scholar says that issues related to gender purely take the approach of social constructionists. He says that societies in the world have varied characteristics, depending on cultures.Advertising Looking for essay on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He notes that the way one society would view the relationship between the two genders would vary from another, which also depend on a number of factors. Lerro (74) is opposed to this notion. He says that gender is best viewed from essentialists’ perspective. He holds that universally, women have always been regarded as the weaker sex, irrespective of the society. In many regions in the world, women have been treated with low esteem. This is because of the fact that they are physically weak as compared to men. To various societies across the world, women are expected to be below men socially. Although the current wave of change has seen women take active roles in income generating activities, many societies still consider them as home keepers who should always be willing to receive and obey instructions from men. This scholar’s argument is valid. However, his explanation, though leaning towards essentialism, still points out that gender is a social construct. Although many societies have almost a similar perception regarding gender, the fact is that they have construed the meaning of gender. The perception is a mere creation of the society members. According to Lepowsky (53), gender cannot take an essentialist approach. The current world has varied perceptions towards women. The society in Saudi Arabia defines gender in a very different way as compared to the United Kingdom society. Saudi Arabia is an Islamic society that follows strict teachings of the holy Quran. In this society, there is a big social gap between men and women. The society defines a woman as a subordinate who should always serve men. When it comes to addressing issues of importance, a woman must consult a man because by virtue of being a woman, the society assumes that one cannot make a decision personally. This is a very sharp contrast to how this gender is viewed in a liberal country such as the United Kingdom. This society has comp letely narrowed the gap between the two genders that what remain are the physiological differences between the two genders. The country has embraced equality between the two sexes, a fact that saw it elect a female Premier Margret Thatcher. The social environment in Saudi Arabia is very different from that in the United Kingdom. Because of this, the two societies have different views on what the two genders are and how they should relate. While one society is of the view that gender is just but the biological differences that makes one male or female, the other society sees more. It sees difference in roles, freedom, and positions in the society.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social Construction of Gender specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Relationship between the Two Genders The society is waking to a new down where women and men are considered equal. The only differences existing are biological. Man has been t he dominant sex over years. Terms such as mankind, chairman and fireman were used to refer to both men and women. However, these are currently considered sexist titles, which should be avoided at all costs. Although the global society is still largely patriarchal, there is an observable effort to create equality between the two sexes. However, men are not willing to relinquish their prestigious positions in the society. In social centers such as schools and colleges, men would try to prove that they are in control. Plante (6) notes that jokes are always essential in our society. Although they are always taken from the face value as a form of entertainment, it has a purpose beyond entertainment. This scholar gives an analysis of sexist jokes used by men towards female students in learning institutions. What comes clear is that men still rely much on their physical superiority, as their way of showing dominance. They use force in order to make female students listen to their jokes, wh ich is highly sexist. When it comes to sex, men completely change. Chappell (19) gives a confession of a certain girl and her sexual encounter. Through this, it can be observed that when a man has the desire for sex, he is willing to bend very low to a woman. However, things change immediately after the process. He becomes rude and he would easily pick mistakes from the same woman. Sex, Gender and Gender Conformity Gender identity is the biological characteristic that would define an individual’s gender. In this regard, it would be appropriate to just categorize humanity based on sex. This would mean that the two categories would be men and women. However, because of these biological differences between the two sexes, there is another way of classifying the two sexes that is, gender. Gender is more of a social than a biological difference between the two sexes. As Plante (110) notes, in this approach, the two genders are analyzed based on the abilities and inabilities. Becaus e men are considered stronger physically, they are given a higher rank in the society because it is assumed that their capabilities are superior to those of women. Sex in itself is a gendered word. In many societies, sex is used to emphasize the difference between the two genders. Because societal pressure, the ‘weaker’ sex (woman) is forced to conform to the position they are given. They conform, not because they like the assigned position, but because they are not allowed to oppose the decision. They may not necessarily accept the position given to them by the society. However, because the society is intolerant and very rigid, they are left with very limited option other than conforming to the norm.Advertising Looking for essay on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In some instances, women are exposed to physical abuse from their male counterparts who are keen on asserting their authority in the societal set up. Plante (136) says that this high handedness has seen many women suffer in silence, simply because they are women. Gender identity disorder is a syndrome that is always traumatizing. An individual who cannot clearly be categorized as a man or a woman may find either himself or herself at the center of social stigmatization. Such an individual lacks a gender to identify with in a society that is so keen on identifying individuals based on gender. Conclusion It can be seen from the above discussion that gender can be defined differently, depending on the community in question. Depending on the societal structure of a given community, gender will assume a meaning depending on how men and women relate. Unlike sex that is defined based on biological differences, gender is defined based on the behavioral patterns of the two genders and the so ciety’s perception of the concerned individual. Every society has its own way of viewing men and women and the relationship between the two. In some societies, women are treated with very low esteem. In such societies, gender is held with high esteem, as a way of showing the boundary that exists between men and women. In other societies, civilization has made a woman be accepted as equal to a man hence the term gender has lost its previous meaning. Issues of gender have raised many questions in the current society. In the current world, women have acquired a new status. They no longer depend on men for everything. As a number of authors note, gender has to be given a new definition other than what it was before. Based on how gender is defined, the current society needs a to re-define it. Works Cited Chappell, Marissa. The war on welfare: family, poverty, and politics in modern America. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. Print. Lepowsky, Maria. Fruit of the Motherland: Gender in an Egalitarian Society. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Print. Lerro, Bruce. Power in Eden: The Emergence of Gender Hierarchies in the Ancient World. Manchester:Trafford Publishing, 2005. Print. Lockheed, Marlaine. Gender and social exclusion. Paris: Education Policy series publishers, 2010. Print Plante, Rebecca. Doing gender diversity: readings in theory and real-world experience. New York: West view Press, 2010. Print. This essay on Social Construction of Gender was written and submitted by user Selah Vang to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

USS Lexington World War Aircraft Carrier CV-2

USS Lexington World War Aircraft Carrier CV-2 USS Lexington (CV-2) Overview Nation: United StatesType: Aircraft CarrierShipyard: Fore River Ship and Engine Building Company, Quincy, MALaid Down: January 8, 1921Launched: October 3, 1925Commissioned: December 14, 1927Fate: Lost to enemy action, May 8, 1942 Specifications Displacement: 37,000 tonsLength: 888 ft.Beam: 107 ft., 6 in.Draft: 32 ft.Propulsion: 4 sets of turbo-electric drive, 16 water-tube boilers, 4 Ãâ€" screwsSpeed: 33.25 knotsRange: 12,000 nautical miles at 14 knotsComplement: 2,791 men Armament (as built) 4 Ãâ€" twin 8-in. guns, 12 Ãâ€" single 5-in. guns Aircraft (as built) 78 aircraft Design Construction Authorized in 1916, the US Navy intended USS Lexington to be the lead ship of a new class of battlecruisers. Following the United States entry into World War I, development of the ship halted as the US Navys need for more destroyers and convoy escort vessels precluded that for a new capital ship. With the conflicts conclusion, Lexington was finally laid down at the Fore River Ship and Engine Building Company in Quincy, MA on January 8, 1921. As workers constructed the ships hull, leaders from around the world met at the Washington Naval Conference. This disarmament meeting called for tonnage limitations to be placed on the navies of the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. As the meeting progressed, work on Lexington was suspended in February 1922 with the ship 24.2% complete. With the signing of the Washington Naval Treaty, the US Navy elected to re-classify Lexington and completed the ship as an aircraft carrier. This aided the service in meeting the new tonnage restrictions set in place by the treaty. As the bulk of the hull was complete, the US Navy elected to retain the battlecruiser armor and torpedo protection as it would have been too expensive to remove. Workers then installed an 866-foot flight deck on the hull along with an island and large funnel. Since the concept of the aircraft carrier was still new, the Bureau of Construction and Repair insisted that the ship mount an armament of eight 8 guns to support its 78 aircraft. These were mounted in four twin turrets fore and aft of the island. Though a single aircraft catapult was installed in the bow, it was seldom used during the ships career. Launched on October 3, 1925, Lexington was completed two years later and entered commission on December 14, 1927 with Captain Albert Marshall in command. This was a month after its sister ship, USS Saratoga (CV-3) joined the fleet. Together, the ships were first large carriers to serve in the US Navy and the second and third carriers after USS Langley. After conducting fitting out and shakedown cruises in the Atlantic, Lexington transferred to the US Pacific Fleet in April 1928. The following year, the carrier took part in Fleet Problem IX as part of the Scouting Force and failed to defend the Panama Canal from Saratoga. Interwar Years Late in 1929, Lexington fulfilled an unusual role for a month when its generators provided power to the city of Tacoma, WA after a drought disabled the citys hydro-electric plant. Returning to more normal operations, Lexington spent the next two years taking part in various fleet problems and maneuvers. During this time, it was commanded by Captain Ernest J. King, the future Chief of Naval Operations during World War II. In February 1932, Lexington and Saratoga operated in tandem and mounted a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor during Grand Joint Exercise No. 4. In a harbinger of things to come, the attack was ruled a success. This feat was repeated by the ships during exercises the following January. Continuing to take part in various training problems over the next several years, Lexington played a key role in developing carrier tactics and developing new methods of underway replenishment. In July 1937, the carrier aided in the search for Amelia Earhart after her disappearance in the South Pacific. World War II Approaches In 1938, Lexington and Saratoga mounted another successful raid on Pearl Harbor during that years Fleet Problem. With tensions rising with Japan two years later, Lexington and the US Pacific Fleet were ordered to remain in Hawaiian waters after exercises in 1940. Pearl Harbor was made the fleets permanent base the following February. Late in 1941, Admiral Husband Kimmel, the Commander-in-Chief of the US Pacific Fleet, directed Lexington to ferry US Marine Corps aircraft to reinforce the base on Midway Island. Departing on December 5, the carriers Task Force 12 was 500 miles southeast of its destination two days later when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Abandoning its original mission, Lexington began an immediate search for the enemy fleet while moving to rendezvous with warships steaming out from Hawaii. Remaining at sea for several days, Lexington was unable to locate the Japanese and returned to Pearl Harbor on December 13. Raiding in the Pacific Quickly ordered back to sea as part of Task Force 11, Lexington moved to attack Jaluit in the Marshall Islands in an effort to divert Japanese attention from the relief of Wake Island. This mission was soon canceled and the carrier returned to Hawaii. After conducting patrols in the vicinity of Johnston Atoll and Christmas Island in January, the new leader the US Pacific Fleet, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, directed Lexington to join with the ANZAC Squadron in the Coral Sea to protect the sea lanes between Australia and the United States. In this role, Vice Admiral Wilson Brown sought to mount a surprise attack on the Japanese base at Rabaul. This was aborted after his ships were discovered by enemy aircraft. Attacked by a force of Mitsubishi G4M Betty bombers on February 20, Lexington survived the raid unscathed. Still desiring to strike at Rabaul, Wilson requested reinforcements from Nimitz. In response, Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletchers Task Force 17, containing the carrier USS Yorkt own, arrived in early March. As the combined forces moved towards Rabaul, Brown learned on March 8 that the Japanese fleet was off Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea after supporting the landing of troops in that region. Altering the plan, he instead launched a large raid from Gulf of Papua against the enemy ships. Flying over the Owen Stanley Mountains, F4F Wildcats, SBD Dauntlesses, and TBD Devastators from Lexington and Yorktown attacked on March 10. In the raid, they sank three enemy transports and damaged several other vessels. In the wake of the attack, Lexington received orders to return to Pearl Harbor. Arriving on March 26, the carrier began an overhaul which saw the removal of its 8 guns and addition of new anti-aircraft batteries. With the completion of the work, Rear Admiral Aubrey Fitch assumed command of TF 11 and began training exercises near Palmyra Atoll and Christmas Island. Loss at Coral Sea On April 18, the training maneuvers were ended and Fitch received orders to rendezvous with Fletchers TF 17 north of New Caledonia. Alerted to the Japanese naval advance against Port Moresby, New Guinea, the combined Allied forces moved into the Coral Sea in early May. On May 7, after searching for each other for a few days, the two sides began to locate opposing vessels. While Japanese aircraft attacked the destroyer USS Sims and oiler USS Neosho, aircraft from Lexington and Yorktown sank the light carrier Shoho. After the strike on the Japanese carrier, Lexingtons Lieutenant Commander Robert E. Dixon famously radioed, Scratch one flat top! Fighting resumed the next day as American aircraft attacked the Japanese carriers Shokaku and Zuikaku. While the former was badly damaged, the latter was able to take cover in a squall. While the American aircraft were attacking, their Japanese counterparts commenced strikes on Lexington and Yorktown. Around 11:20 AM, Lexington sustained two torpedo hits which caused several boilers to be shut down and reduced the ships speed. Listing slightly to port, the carrier then was struck by two bombs. While one hit the port forward 5 ready ammunition locker and started several fires, the other detonated on the ships funnel and caused little structural damage. Working to save the ship, damage control parties began shifting fuel to correct the list and Lexington began recovering aircraft that were low on fuel. In addition, a new combat air patrol was launched. As the situation aboard began to stabilize, a massive explosion occurred at 12:47 PM when gasoline vapors from the ruptured port aviation fuel tanks ignited. Though the explosion destroyed the ships main damage control station, air operations continued and all of the surviving aircraft from the mornings strike were recovered by 2:14 PM. At 2:42 PM another major explosion tore through the forward part of the ship igniting fires on the hanger deck and leading to a power failure. Though assisted by three destroyers, Lexingtons damage control teams were overwhelmed when a third explosion occurred at 3:25 PM which cut off water pressure to the hanger deck. With the carrier dead in the water, Captain Frederick Sherman ordered the wounded to be evacuated and at 5:07 PM directed the crew to abandon ship. Remaining aboard until the last of the crew had been rescued, Sherman departed at 6:30 PM. All told, 2,770 men were taken from the burning Lexington. With the carrier burning and wracked by further explosions, the destroyer USS Phelps was ordered to sink Lexington. Firing two torpedoes, the destroyer succeeded as the carrier rolled to port and sank. Following Lexingtons loss, workers at the Fore River Yard asked Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox to rename the Essex-class carrier then under construction at Quincy in honor of the lost carrier. He agreed, the new carrier became USS Lexington (CV-16). Selected Sources DANFS: USS Lexington (CV-2)Military Factory: USS Lexington (CV-2)US Carriers: USS Lexington (CV-2)